Carbon 14 dating simple explanation
) is a metastable allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice.Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at standard conditions.
Through studies of carbon isotope ratios (similar to the methodology used in carbon dating, except with the stable isotopes C-12 and C-13), it has been shown that the carbon found in diamonds comes from both inorganic and organic sources.Diamonds are brought close to the Earth's surface through deep volcanic eruptions by magma, which cools into igneous rocks known as kimberlites and lamproites.Diamonds can also be produced synthetically in a HPHT method which approximately simulates the conditions in the Earth's mantle.An alternative, and completely different growth technique is chemical vapor deposition (CVD).Several non-diamond materials, which include cubic zirconia and silicon carbide and are often called diamond simulants, resemble diamond in appearance and many properties.Agroforestry—the practice of growing trees and crops in interacting combinations—is recognized worldwide as an integrated approach to sustainable land-use.
It is estimated to be practiced over 1 billion hectares in developing countries, and to a lesser extent in the industrialized countries.
In particular, under oceanic plates the temperature rises more quickly with depth, beyond the range required for diamond formation at the depth required.
The correct combination of temperature and pressure is only found in the thick, ancient, and stable parts of continental plates where regions of lithosphere known as cratons exist.
These conditions are met in two places on Earth; in the lithospheric mantle below relatively stable continental plates, and at the site of a meteorite strike.
The conditions for diamond formation to happen in the lithospheric mantle occur at considerable depth corresponding to the requirements of temperature and pressure.
Those properties determine the major industrial application of diamond in cutting and polishing tools and the scientific applications in diamond knives and diamond anvil cells.